By Arthur C. Stern (Eds.)
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Additional resources for Air Pollution and its Effects. Air Pollution
GASEOUS POLLUTANTS IN THE AIR Ί 1— T~ ΊΓ T TIME( · = peak value in T A ) FIG. 1. Graphic representation of effect of instantaneous measure of concentration and time averaging of concentration. ] AVERAGING SECOND I MINUTES 5 1015 3 0 I 2 HOURS 4 8 12 I TIME 2 DAYS 4 7 14 I MONTHS 2 3 6 I I I 10 100 1000 I YEARS 2 3 4 5 10 I III 10,000 I CENTURY 100 100,000 AVERAGING TIME, HOURS FIG. 2. C. ] 26 BERNARD D. TEBBENS contaminant concentrations may change rapidly owing to meteoro logical or source variations, a momentary peak concentration is not likely to be the same as an average concentration over 1 hour, 1 day, or any other appreciable time interval.
Expression of Gas Concentration B. Effect of Averaging Time C. Normal Air D. Water Vapor II. Carbon-Containing Gases A. Carbon Dioxide B. Carbon Monoxide C. Hydrocarbons D. Oxygenated Hydrocarbons III. Sulfur-Containing Gases A. Sulfur Oxides B. Hydrogen Sulfide and Mercaptans IV. Nitrogen-Containing Gases A. Nitrogen Oxides B. Ammonia C. Organic Nitrogen Compounds D. Gaseous Interactions V. Ozone and Oxidants VI. Fluorine and Hydrogen Fluoride References I. 23 23 24 26 27 28 28 30 33 36 37 37 39 39 39 41 42 42 43 45 45 Introduction A.
If one were to attempt to catalog organic compounds which have been observed or might be expected to be detectable in contaminated air, the list would indeed be a very extensive one. That the chemical composition of organic air contamination is exquisitely complex is emphasized by noting some possible reasons for presence of gas phase organics in the atmosphere. Leakage or loss of any gas or liquid fuel, solvent, etc. would be a direct source of many organic species. Both incomplete oxidation and cracking of fuels in combustion pro cesses can lead to another group of compounds.
Air Pollution and its Effects. Air Pollution by Arthur C. Stern (Eds.)